Analysis of personality traits in patients of road traffic accident (RTA) with special reference to motorcycle riders (2023)

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Article preview Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health Abstract Background Patients and methods Results Discussion Introduction Section snippets Material and methods Results Discussion Conflicts of interest References (18) Public Health Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. A Treatise on Community Health The Injury Chart Book: A Graphical Overview of the Global Burden of Injuries Annual Report on Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India Mumbai Urban Transport Project 2: Accident Study. 1-342. Final Report Prepared for World Bank The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries BMJ Road traffic injury is an escalating burden in Africa and deserves proportionate research efforts PLoS Med Road traffic accidents in Tanzania: a 10-year epidemiological appraisal East Cent Afr J Surg What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V Psychol Med Cited by (6) Road accident proneness in Malaysia: A hypothesized model of driver's demographic profiles, aggressive driving and risky driving Reconsideration of driving license delivery policies based on screening of personality and sleep disorders in iran A partial least square approach to predict direct and indirect effects of personality traits, aggressive driving and accident proneness: An integrated safety and logistics framework Personality traits and risky behavior among motorcyclists: An exploratory study Driver's personality traits, driving anger, risky driving, aggressive driving and road accident proneness in Malaysia: A proposed safety and logistic framework A predictive model of motorcycle accident involvement using Structural Equation Modeling considering driver personality and riding behavior in Metro Manila Recommended articles (6) FAQs Videos

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  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Section snippets
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Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health

Volume 3, Supplement 1,


, Pages S54-S57

Author links open overlay panelRahulGoyalaVineetKumarbKumarShantanubShahWalliullahbShailendraSinghbAjaiSinghcPersonEnvelope

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Road traffic accidents (RTAs), in the current scenario, have taken the form of an epidemic. Developing countries are presently showing an increasing trend with respect to the number of vehicles and population. Personality characteristics are becoming a significant contributor in RTAs, owing to rising stress levels and varying circumstances.

Patients and methods

A total of 250 cases and 210 controls of age >18 years were selected, as per criteria decided. After primary management and obtaining clearance from the institutional ethical committee, all enrolled subjects were assessed by International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) – ICD 10 module screening questionnaire and analyzed for nine personality traits.


Of all the cases enrolled, 72.8% were males. There were 81 motorcyclists out of 250 cases enrolled. Amongst all the motorcyclists encountering RTA, impulsive personality trait is found in 85.19% and histrionic trait was found in 82.72% of cases.


Motorcycle riders having impulsive and histrionic personality characteristics constitute 32.4% of RTA victims, attending orthopedics emergency unit at trauma center of a tertiary care center were, the presence of which was statistically significant.


Accident is defined as a sudden occurrence in a sequence of events, which usually produces unintended injury, death, or property damage. Road traffic accident (RTA) continues to constitute a major bulk of noncommunicable diseases in the present era.1 As per available records of World Health Organization, road crashes dominate this category of injuries worldwide and constitute around 25% of all moralities.2 It is projected that RTAs will be the 5th leading cause of death, overtaking diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by the year 2030, taking into consideration its current incidence and rate.3

In our country (India), according to the latest report of the National Crime Records Bureau, it is expected that mortality due to RTA figures to 13 people every hour, which is a major contributor to misery, disability, and deaths in our country, as well as worldwide, with a disproportionate number occurring in developing countries.4, 5, 6 It is estimated that by 2020, RTAs will probably rank as high as third among the causes of disability-adjusted life years lost.6, 7, 8 In developing countries, most of the RTAs occur in urban regions and pedestrians, passengers, and motorcyclists collectively constitute around 90% of deaths. This increased frequency of distribution for accidents in developing countries cannot be attributed to chance alone.8

Different individuals may behave differently to a given situation or under common circumstances, which probably is because of an individual's personality trait. The recent concept emphasizes the role of temporary life stresses in causing personality deterioration in individual and thus leading to accidents. Personality of an individual is basically a moderator between stimuli and behavior. The answer as to why people in similar situations act differently is probably explained by an individual's personality trait. It is hypothesized that, if differences in personality characteristic of cases in RTA patients are identified, it could then be correlated to its accident proneness. We, therefore, conducted this study in order to evaluate the patterns of various personality characteristics in patients suffering from nonfatal orthopedic injuries as a result of RTA and attending a tertiary care center, with special focus on motorcyclists.

Section snippets

Material and methods

We carried out this study on fully conscious and oriented patients of >18 years, suffering from nonfatal orthopedic injuries, as a result of RTA, and attending Orthopedics Emergency Unit, Trauma Center of a tertiary care center during April 2014 to March 2015. The patients not having any significant psychiatric illness,9 as per the history and treatment records, and giving informed consent were selected as cases. The attendants of the cases with similar socio-economic profile except injury were


In this study, we registered a total of 250 cases and 210 controls, as per inclusion–exclusion criteria. In our study, there were 72.8% males (182/250). In our study population, the mean age of cases was 35.32±2.75 (range 31–40) and that of controls was 35.45±2.85 (range 31–40). Of all cases, 39.2% were motorcyclists (98/250) belonging to 31–40 years age group (76/250; 30.4%). On considering the educational status of our study population, the majority of cases (38.8%) and controls (44.2%) were


It has been well propagated that “man drives as he lives,” and this is pretty obvious from the fact that the more an individual has problems related to personal and social demands of living, the more he tends to make driving errors.12 RTAs are inevitable, but we can definitely make some positive attempts to reduce its incidence to the bare minimum. In accordance to the above, it has been observed that many a times there is a disproportionate distribution of accidents among drivers with similar

Conflicts of interest

The authors have none to declare.

References (18)

  • A. Ghaffar et al.The burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries: the first national survey of Pakistan

    Public Health


  • J.E. Park

    Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. A Treatise on Community Health


  • M. Peden et al.

    The Injury Chart Book: A Graphical Overview of the Global Burden of Injuries


  • National Crime Record Bureau

    Annual Report on Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India


  • G. Tiwari et al.

    Mumbai Urban Transport Project 2: Accident Study. 1-342. Final Report Prepared for World Bank


    (Video) Tutorial on Accidents by Community Medicine Deptt.

  • V.M. Nantulya et al.

    The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries



  • E. Lagarde

    Road traffic injury is an escalating burden in Africa and deserves proportionate research efforts

    PLoS Med


  • L.M. Museru et al.

    Road traffic accidents in Tanzania: a 10-year epidemiological appraisal

    East Cent Afr J Surg


  • D.J. Stein et al.

    What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V

    Psychol Med


There are more references available in the full text version of this article.

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Copyright © 2015 INDIACLEN. Published by Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier India, Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.


Where does most of the trauma occur during motorcycle accidents? ›

Head injuries are some of the most serious injuries that a motorcyclist can suffer. Head injuries can range from mild to severe and can cause permanent physical, mental and emotional disabilities. In the worst motorcycle accident cases, head injuries can result in death.

WHO road traffic deaths? ›

Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults aged 5-29 years. Approximately 1.3 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes.

How many people are killed in road accidents? ›

Every year, more than 1.35 million people die on the world's roads and millions more are seriously injured. This preventable epidemic hits the poorest hardest and is killing the next generation. In this fact page we will cover: global road death and serious injury statistics.

What are the two types of motorcycle riders? ›

"There's two types of riders; those who have crashed, and those who will." : r/motorcycles.

What makes a biker a biker? ›

A Biker is one who respects his/her machine as a faithful companion of the road. A Biker is one who feels a part of motorcycling with a strong attachment to other riders that love the world of two wheels.

What is the main cause of motorcycle accidents? ›

Failure to yield and speeding are the top primary causes of motorcycle crashes.

What is the biggest cause of motorcycle accidents? ›

Some may involve the motorcyclist's negligent conduct or careless driving; however, many others are caused by the fault of another driver on the road. The most common cause of motorcycle accidents is the failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic.

What are the effects of road accident? ›

It effect ranges from physical, emotional, social and economic effects for everyone involved. Drivers and passengers can suffer from minor cuts and bruises to broken limbs, whiplash, back and spinal injuries, paralysis and even death.

What are the 3 factors that cause accidents? ›

What are the main contributing factors to road accidents? Factors such as inexperience, lack of skill, and risk-taking behaviors have been associated with the collisions of young drivers.

How can we solve the road accident problem? ›

  1. Drive in the prescribed speed limits on the various roads. ...
  2. Always put on helmets, seat belts and other safety equipments before driving a bicycle/ motor cycle/vehicle. ...
  3. Do not drink and drive. ...
  4. Never use mobile phones or ear phones while driving.

Which country has most road accidents? ›

The United States of America has a distinguished record of the highest number of road accidents in the world.

What do you call someone who loves motorcycles? ›

Motorcyclist: Politically correct and all-encompassing term for people who ride motorcycles , typically used by people outside the riding sphere. Like “biker,” some riders don't mind being referred to as motorcyclists, while others do.

How many types of bikers are there? ›

The six main types of motorcycles are generally recognized as standard, cruiser, touring, sports, off-road, and dual-purpose.

What is rider fatigue? ›

Rider fatigue is more likely to be a response to physical exhaustion than to monotony. Other factors include dehydration and exposure to the weather (heat, cold, wind noise and buffeting etc). The symptoms of rider fatigue include: joint and muscle stiffness. pain or weakness in hands and feet.

Why are bikers so strong? ›

Since motorcycles usually weigh at least a few hundred pounds, riders must use their bodies to help safely balance and steer. This demands use of nearly every muscle, which, over time, improves muscle tone!

What is the difference between a biker and a rider? ›

Hence they are eager to carry a motorbiking badge or identity. Therefore everything indicates that they are a bike enthusiast and they are a biker. Hence coming to the term rider, who is he/she or what makes someone a rider? Simply a rider is who rides, who rides a motorcycle, who loves and enjoys riding a motorcycle.

Why do men love motorcycles? ›

Some love to ride for the speed, others the camaraderie, and others say they love the freedom of the open road. Whatever the rationale, though, there's always one thing that brings riders together: the joy of becoming one with your machine.

What is the most common type of motorcycle accident? ›

Head-On Collision Motorcycle Accidents

78% of the time, these accidents happen when a car strikes a motorcycle head-on. Unsurprisingly, head-on collisions between a motorcycle and a car are often fatal for the motorcyclist.

Why do you think motorcycle drivers were prone to accidents? ›

Motorcyclists are exposed to a higher risk of crashing compared to car drivers [1]. This is primarily attributed to the inherent vulnerability of motorcycle riders and the greater amount of risks they are exposed to.

What are the chances of a motorcycle accident? ›

Looking at those numbers, we can calculate that one percent of motorcyclists are likely to get into a motorcycle accident. To look at it another way, the odds are one in 100 for getting into a motorcycle accident. Those are some low odds and show just how dangerous it can be to ride your motorbike.

What age group has the most motorcycle accidents? ›

Although younger riders represented the group with the highest number of motorcycle-related fatalities in 1975, motorcyclists aged 50 and older suffer the most fatalities today. This group is a large part of the population; 76 million people were born between 1946 and 1964 in the United States.

What is the average age of a motorcycle rider? ›

As baby-boomer bikers have reconnected with their youth, the mean age of motorcycle ownership has risen — from 33.1 in 1998 to 40.2 in 2003, according to the Motorcycle Industry Council trade association. And the American Motorcyclist Association's latest data show the average age of its members is 48.

Which type of motorcycle is safest? ›

According to the Highway Loss Data Institute, standard motorcycles, touring motorcycles, cruisers, and sport-touring motorcycles have the lowest rate of fatal accidents. The highest number of motorcycle crashes involve super-sport bikes and sport bikes.

How unsafe is riding a motorcycle? ›

Riding a motorcycle is, in general, not as safe as driving a car, truck, or SUV. This is because motorcycles don't have safety features like airbags or seatbelts, and riders are more vulnerable in collisions.

What is the most common cause of road accidents? ›

Undoubtedly, distracted driving is the number one cause of car accidents. A distracted driver does not have their complete attention on the road, and they may be paying closer attention to a mobile device, passengers, or even a cheeseburger.

How unsafe attitudes and Behaviours cause accidents? ›

Overconfidence is too much of a good thing. "It'll never happen to me" is an attitude that can lead to improper procedures, tools, or methods in your work. Any of these can lead to an injury. Starting a Task with Incomplete Instructions: To do the job safely and right the first time you need complete information.

How does a car accident affect you emotionally? ›

A major car accident can cause PTSD, extreme anxiety, depression and debilitating phobias. Studies have shown that crash-related mental traumas can have symptoms lasting up to a year after an auto accident, especially for children.

What are causes and effects of road accidents? ›

Common Causes of Road Accidents in India
  • Distracted Driving. One of the most common causes of road accident is distracted driving. ...
  • Drunk Driving. ...
  • Speeding/ Reckless Driving. ...
  • Not Wearing Seat Belt. ...
  • Rain or Wet Roads. ...
  • Potholes and Bad Road Condition. ...
  • Breaking Traffic Rules. ...
  • Tailgating.

How does a car accident affect you socially? ›

Experiencing a life-changing injury can lead people to change the priorities in their social lives. Some people said they got tired easily, experienced a loss in self-confidence and no longer liked being in crowded places.

What is an example of a personal factor that can lead to an accident? ›

Impaired judgment. Inattention or distraction. Negligence of basic safety rules. Lack of experience.

What are 4 types of accidents? ›

The Top Five Classifications of Accidents
  • Accidents at Work. You may be at risk of serious personal injury depending on the type of job you have. ...
  • Car Accidents. This is perhaps the most common of the five classifications of accidents. ...
  • Medical Negligence Accidents. ...
  • Slip (Trip) and Fall Accidents. ...
  • Motorcycle Accidents.

What are the 5 human factors? ›

The Five Human Factors method is about studying the physical, cognitive, social, cultural and emotional factors that make up a complete customer experience. The Five Human Factors support customer observations in the field during the observation phase of an innovation project.

How can we prevent accidents? ›

10 ways to prevent common accidents and protect your small...
  1. Avoid slips and falls. ...
  2. Be aware of electrical hazards. ...
  3. Limit manual handling and lifting. ...
  4. Keep a well-stocked first aid kit in plain sight. ...
  5. Create an emergency action plan. ...
  6. Identify staff who may need extra help in an emergency. ...
  7. Promote fire safety.

What are the 3 types of accident prevention? ›

There are three aspects to the prevention of accidents at work. The creation of a safe place of work. The development and operation of safe working practices. Ensuring the personal safety of all employees.

What is the conclusion of road accident? ›

Road accidents are the product of reckless driving without any road sense. We well aware about that road accidents, injury and death has been very common now-a-days.

Which country has no road accidents? ›

The safest roads in the world can be found in Norway. Scoring an impressive 8.21 out of 10, the research found Norway the safest country to drive in.

Which country has the safest roads in the world? ›

We should note that some of the countries that top the list with the lowest number of fatalities per million inhabitants, such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark and Finland, also rank high in the World Economic Forum's quality of road infrastructure survey.

Which country has the least traffic accidents? ›

Lowest Rates of Roadside Deaths Worldwide
RankCountryRoad traffic death rate (per 100 000 population) in 2013
21 more rows
29 May 2018

What are the rights of a person who helps an accident victim? ›

The Good Samaritan Law allows a person, without expectation of payment or reward and without any duty of care or special relationship, voluntarily come forward to administer immediate assistance or emergency care to a person injured in an accident, or crash, or emergency medical condition.

Who is the most important person in a first aid situation? ›

First aiders may be 'first on scene' at an incident so need to know basic principles of incident management. The main principle of incident management is that you are the most important person and your safety comes first!

What are road accidents essay? ›

Essay on Road Accident: Road accidents have become very common nowadays. As more and people are buying automobiles, the incidences of road accidents are just increasing day by day. Furthermore, people have also become more careless now. Not many people follow the traffic rules.

How do I look like a biker? ›

Black boots, black jacket, black shirt and jeans should make up most of your closet. It is possible to mix in a white shirt, or blue jeans, but try to avoid wearing that much color at the same time. Bright, cheerful colors can give off the wrong impression. Ladies can wear jeans or skirts, and boots.

How do you become a biker? ›

10-Step Plan to Achieving Your Dream of Becoming a Motorcycle Rider
  1. Make a commitment, then set a goal.
  2. Take a motorcycle training course.
  3. Buy a motorcycle.
  4. Research and purchase basic motorcycle riding gear.
  5. Find a mentor and use the buddy system.
  6. Rack up some miles and practice.
  7. Plan on setbacks.
30 Jun 2021

What do bikers call their girlfriends? ›

Old Lady. This is a term of endearment for a biker's girlfriend or wife. If a biker refers to his lady as such, you'll know to keep your paws off.

What does a biker girl wear? ›

The biker girl fashion simply loves denim, so you shouldn't be shy to wear all kinds of distressed denim jeans. They go hand in hand with a black tank and strap tops, and throwing a leather jacket on top of that will complete the look.

Why do bikers wear rings? ›

A biker ring is a manifestation of their superstition. They believe that certain symbols these rings carry can save them from trouble, bring good luck, and even drive the death away. Bikers are not the only people who wear good luck symbolism, but they do it in the most badass manner.

How long does it take to become a proficient motorcycle rider? ›

To get the basics of riding a motorcycle, it takes a few hours. To learn how to ride a motorcycle takes between three to five days of practice, and to get good at riding a motorcycle takes between one to two years.


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Hobby: Sand art, Drama, Web surfing, Cycling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Leather crafting, Creative writing

Introduction: My name is Pres. Carey Rath, I am a faithful, funny, vast, joyous, lively, brave, glamorous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.