Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (2022)

This is an edited and adapted chapter by Diener, E. & Lucas, R. E. (2019) from the NOBA series on psychology. For full attribution see end of chapter.

Personality traits reflect people’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Personality traits imply consistency and stability—someone who scores high on a specific trait like Extraversion is expected to be sociable in different situations and over time. Thus, trait psychology rests on the idea that people differ from one another in terms of where they stand on a set of basic trait dimensions that persist over time and across situations. The most widely used system of traits is called the Five-Factor Model. This system includes five broad traits that can be remembered with the acronym OCEAN: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Each of the major traits from the Big Five can be divided into facets to give a more fine-grained analysis of someone’s personality. In addition, some trait theorists argue that there are other traits that cannot be completely captured by the Five-Factor Model. Critics of the trait concept argue that people do not act consistently from one situation to the next and that people are very influenced by situational forces. Thus, one major debate in the field concerns the relative power of people’s traits versus the situations in which they find themselves as predictors of their behavior.

  • Big five
  • Five-Factor Model of personality
  • OCEAN system of traits
  • Person-situation debate
  • Personality
  • Personality traits
  • Social learning

Learning Objectives

  • List and describe the “Big Five” (“OCEAN”) personality traits that comprise the Five-Factor Model of personality.
  • Describe how the facet approach extends broad personality traits.
  • Explain a critique of the personality-trait concept.
  • Describe in what ways personality traits may be manifested in everyday behavior.
  • Describe each of the Big Five personality traits, and the low and high end of the dimension.
  • Give examples of each of the Big Five personality traits, including both a low and high example.
  • Describe how traits and social learning combine to predict your social activities.
  • Describe your theory of how personality traits get refined by social learning.

When we observe people around us, one of the first things that strikes us is how different people are from one another. Some people are very talkative while others are very quiet. Some are active whereas others are couch potatoes. Some worry a lot, others almost never seem anxious. Each time we use one of these words, words like “talkative,” “quiet,” “active,” or “anxious,” to describe those around us, we are talking about a person’spersonalitythe characteristic ways that people differ from one another. Personality psychologists try to describe and understand these differences.

Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (1)

Although there are many ways to think about the personalities that people have, Gordon Allport and other “personologists” claimed that we can best understand the differences between individuals by understanding their personality traits.Personality traitsreflect basic dimensions on which people differ (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). According to trait psychologists, there are a limited number of these dimensions (dimensions like Extraversion, Conscientiousness, or Agreeableness), and each individual falls somewhere on each dimension, meaning that they could be low, medium, or high on any specific trait.

An important feature of personality traits is that they reflectcontinuous distributionsrather than distinct personality types. This means that when personality psychologists talk about Introverts and Extraverts, they are not really talking about two distinct types of people who are completely and qualitatively different from one another. Instead, they are talking about people who score relatively low or relatively high along a continuous distribution. In fact, when personality psychologists measure traits likeExtraversion, they typically find that most people score somewhere in the middle, with smaller numbers showing more extreme levels. The figure below shows the distribution of Extraversion scores from a survey of thousands of people. As you can see, most people report being moderately, but not extremely, extraverted, with fewer people reporting very high or very low scores.

Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (2)

There are three criteria that are characterize personality traits: (1) consistency, (2) stability, and (3) individual differences.

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  1. To have a personality trait, individuals must be somewhat consistent across situations in their behaviors related to the trait. For example, if they are talkative at home, they tend also to be talkative at work.
  2. Individuals with a trait are also somewhat stable over time in behaviors related to the trait. If they are talkative, for example, at age 30, they will also tend to be talkative at age 40.
  3. People differ from one another on behaviors related to the trait. Using speech is not a personality trait and neither is walking on two feet—virtually all individuals do these activities, and there are almost no individual differences. But people differ on how frequently they talk and how active they are, and thus personality traits such as Talkativeness and Activity Level do exist.

A challenge of the trait approach was to discover the major traits on which all people differ. Scientists for many decades generated hundreds of new traits, so that it was soon difficult to keep track and make sense of them. For instance, one psychologist might focus on individual differences in “friendliness,” whereas another might focus on the highly related concept of “sociability.” Scientists began seeking ways to reduce the number of traits in some systematic way and to discover the basic traits that describe most of the differences between people.

The way that Gordon Allport and his colleague Henry Odbert approached this was to search the dictionary for all descriptors of personality (Allport & Odbert, 1936). Their approach was guided by thelexical hypothesis, which states that all important personality characteristics should be reflected in the language that we use to describe other people. Therefore, if we want to understand the fundamental ways in which people differ from one another, we can turn to the words that people use to describe one another. So if we want to know what words people use to describe one another, where should we look? Allport and Odbert looked in the most obvious place—the dictionary. Specifically, they took all the personality descriptors that they could find in the dictionary (they started with almost 18,000 words but quickly reduced that list to a more manageable number) and then used statistical techniques to determine which words “went together.” In other words, if everyone who said that they were “friendly” also said that they were “sociable,” then this might mean that personality psychologists would only need a single trait to capture individual differences in these characteristics. Statistical techniques were used to determine whether a small number of dimensions might underlie all of the thousands of words we use to describe people.

The Five-Factor Model of Personality

Research that used the lexical approach showed that many of the personality descriptors found in the dictionary do indeed overlap. In other words, many of the words that we use to describe people are synonyms. Thus, if we want to know what a person is like, we do not necessarily need to ask how sociable they are, how friendly they are, and how gregarious they are. Instead, because sociable people tend to be friendly and gregarious, we can summarize this personality dimension with a single term. Someone who is sociable, friendly, and gregarious would typically be described as an “Extravert.” Once we know she is an extravert, we can assume that she is sociable, friendly, and gregarious.

Statistical methods (specifically, a technique calledfactor analysis) helped to determine whether a small number of dimensions underlie the diversity of words that people like Allport and Odbert identified. The most widely accepted system to emerge from this approach was “The Big Five” or “Five-Factor Model” (Goldberg, 1990;McCrae & John, 1992;McCrae & Costa, 1987). The Big Five comprises five major traits shown in the Figure 2 below. A way to remember these five is with the acronym OCEAN (O is forOpenness; C is forConscientiousness; E is forExtraversion; A is forAgreeableness; N is forNeuroticism). Figure 3 provides descriptions of people who would score high and low on each of these traits.

Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (3)
Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (4)

Scores on the Big Five traits are mostly independent. That means that a person’s standing on one trait tells very little about their standing on the other traits of the Big Five. For example, a person can be extremely high in Extraversion and be either high or low on Neuroticism. Similarly, a person can be low in Agreeableness and be either high or low in Conscientiousness. Thus, in the Five-Factor Model, you need five scores to describe most of an individual’s personality.

Traits are important and interesting because they describe stable patterns of behavior that persist for long periods of time (Caspi, Roberts, & Shiner, 2005). Importantly, these stable patterns can have broad-ranging consequences for many areas of our life (Roberts, Kuncel, Shiner, Caspi, & Goldberg, 2007). For instance, think about the factors that determine success in college. If you were asked to guess what factors predict good grades in college, you might guess something like intelligence. This guess would be correct, but we know much more about who is likely to do well. Specifically, personality researchers have also found the personality traits like Conscientiousness play an important role in college and beyond, probably because highly conscientious individuals study hard, get their work done on time, and are less distracted by nonessential activities that take time away from school work. In addition, highly conscientious people are often healthier than people low in conscientiousness because they are more likely to maintain healthy diets, to exercise, and to follow basic safety procedures like wearing seat belts or bicycle helmets. Over the long term, this consistent pattern of behaviors can add up to meaningful differences in health and longevity. Thus, personality traits are not just a useful way to describe people you know; they actually help psychologists predict how good a worker someone will be, how long he or she will live, and the types of jobs and activities the person will enjoy. Thus, there is growing interest in personality psychology among psychologists who work in applied settings, such as health psychology or organizational psychology.

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So how does it feel to be told that your entire personality can be summarized with scores on just five personality traits? Do you think these five scores capture the complexity of your own and others’ characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors? Most people would probably say no, pointing to some exception in their behavior that goes against the general pattern that others might see. For instance, you may know people who are warm and friendly and find it easy to talk with strangers at a party yet are terrified if they have to perform in front of others or speak to large groups of people. The fact that there are different ways of being extraverted or conscientious shows that there is value in considering lower-level units of personality that are more specific than the Big Five traits. These more specific, lower-level units of personality are often called facets.

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To give you a sense of what these narrow units are like, Figure 4 shows facets for each of the Big Five traits. It is important to note that although personality researchers generally agree about the value of the Big Five traits as a way to summarize one’s personality, there is no widely accepted list of facets that should be studied. The list seen here, based on work by researchers Paul Costa and Jeff McCrae, thus reflects just one possible list among many. It should, however, give you an idea of some of the facets making up each of the Five-Factor Model.

Facets can be useful because they provide more specific descriptions of what a person is like. For instance, if we take our friend who loves parties but hates public speaking, we might say that this person scores high on the “gregariousness” and “warmth” facets of extraversion, while scoring lower on facets such as “assertiveness” or “excitement-seeking.” This precise profile of facet scores not only provides a better description, it might also allow us to better predict how this friend will do in a variety of different jobs (for example, jobs that require public speaking versus jobs that involve one-on-one interactions with customers;Paunonen & Ashton, 2001). Because different facets within a broad, global trait like extraversion tend to go together (those who are gregarious are often but not always assertive), the broad trait often provides a useful summary of what a person is like. But when we really want to know a person, facet scores add to our knowledge in important ways.

Despite the popularity of the Five-Factor Model, it is certainly not the only model that exists. Some suggest that there are more than five major traits, or perhaps even fewer. For example, in one of the first comprehensive models to be proposed, Hans Eysenck suggested that Extraversion and Neuroticism are most important. Eysenck believed that by combining people’s standing on these two major traits, we could account for many of the differences in personality that we see in people (Eysenck, 1981). So for instance, a neurotic introvert would be shy and nervous, while a stable introvert might avoid social situations and prefer solitary activities, but he may do so with a calm, steady attitude and little anxiety or emotion. Interestingly, Eysenck attempted to link these two major dimensions to underlying differences in people’s biology. For instance, he suggested that introverts experienced too much sensory stimulation and arousal, which made them want to seek out quiet settings and less stimulating environments. More recently, Jeffrey Gray suggested that these two broad traits are related to fundamental reward and avoidance systems in the brain—extraverts might be motivated to seek reward and thus exhibit assertive, reward-seeking behavior, whereas people high in neuroticism might be motivated to avoid punishment and thus may experience anxiety as a result of their heightened awareness of the threats in the world around them (Gray, 1981. This model has since been updated; seeGray & McNaughton, 2000). These early theories have led to a burgeoning interest in identifying the physiological underpinnings of the individual differences that we observe.

Another revision of the Big Five is theHEXACO modelof traits (Ashton & Lee, 2007). This model is similar to the Big Five, but it posits slightly different versions of some of the traits, and its proponents argue that one important class of individual differences was omitted from the Five-Factor Model. The HEXACO adds Honesty-Humility as a sixth dimension of personality. People high in this trait are sincere, fair, and modest, whereas those low in the trait are manipulative, narcissistic, and self-centered. Thus, trait theorists are agreed that personality traits are important in understanding behavior, but there are still debates on the exact number and composition of the traits that are most important.

There are other important traits that are not included in comprehensive models like the Big Five. Although the five factors capture much that is important about personality, researchers have suggested other traits that capture interesting aspects of our behavior. In Figure 5 below we present just a few, out of hundreds, of the other traits that have been studied by personologists.

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Not all of the above traits are currently popular with scientists, yet each of them has experienced popularity in the past. Although the Five-Factor Model has been the target of more rigorous research than some of the traits above, these additional personality characteristics give a good idea of the wide range of behaviors and attitudes that traits can cover.

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The ideas described in this module should probably seem familiar, if not obvious to you. When asked to think about what our friends, enemies, family members, and colleagues are like, some of the first things that come to mind are their personality characteristics. We might think about how warm and helpful our first teacher was, how irresponsible and careless our brother is, or how demanding and insulting our first boss was. Each of these descriptors reflects a personality trait, and most of us generally think that the descriptions that we use for individuals accurately reflect their “characteristic pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors,” or in other words, their personality.

But what if this idea were wrong? What if our belief in personality traits were an illusion and people are not consistent from one situation to the next? This was a possibility that shook the foundation of personality psychology in the late 1960s when Walter Mischel published a book calledPersonality and Assessment(1968). In this book, Mischel suggested that if one looks closely at people’s behavior across many different situations, the consistency is really not that impressive. In other words, children who cheat on tests at school may steadfastly follow all rules when playing games and may never tell a lie to their parents. In other words, he suggested, there may not be any general trait of honesty that links these seemingly related behaviors. Furthermore, Mischel suggested that observers may believe that broad personality traits like honesty exist, when in fact, this belief is an illusion. The debate that followed the publication of Mischel’s book was called thepersonsituation debate because it pitted the power of personality against the power of situational factors as determinants of the behavior that people exhibit.

Because of the findings that Mischel emphasized, many psychologists focused on an alternative to the trait perspective. Instead of studying broad, context-free descriptions, like the trait terms we’ve described so far, Mischel thought that psychologists should focus on people’s distinctive reactions to specific situations. For instance, although there may not be a broad and general trait of honesty, some children may be especially likely to cheat on a test when the risk of being caught is low and the rewards for cheating are high. Others might be motivated by the sense of risk involved in cheating and may do so even when the rewards are not very high. Thus, the behavior itself results from the child’s unique evaluation of the risks and rewards present at that moment, along with her evaluation of her abilities and values. Because of this, the same child might act very differently in different situations. Thus, Mischel thought that specific behaviors were driven by the interaction between very specific, psychologically meaningful features of the situation in which people found themselves, the person’s unique way of perceiving that situation, and his or her abilities for dealing with it. Mischel and others argued that it was these social-cognitive processes that underlie people’s reactions to specific situations that provide some consistency when situational features are the same. If so, then studying these broad traits might be more fruitful than cataloging and measuring narrow, context-free traits like Extraversion or Neuroticism.

In the years after the publication of Mischel’s (1968) book, debates raged about whether personality truly exists, and if so, how it should be studied. And, as is often the case, it turns out that a more moderate middle ground than what the situationists proposed could be reached. It is certainly true, as Mischel pointed out, that a person’s behavior in one specific situation is not a good guide to how that person will behave in a very different specific situation. Someone who is extremely talkative at one specific party may sometimes be reticent to speak up during class and may even act like a wallflower at a different party. But this does not mean that personality does not exist, nor does it mean that people’s behavior is completely determined by situational factors. Indeed, research conducted after the person-situation debate shows that on average, the effect of the “situation” is about as large as that of personality traits. However, it is also true that if psychologists assess a broad range of behaviors across many different situations, there are general tendencies that emerge. Personality traits give an indication about how people will act on average, but frequently they are not so good at predicting how a person will act in a specific situation at a certain moment in time. Thus, to best capture broad traits, one must assessaggregate behaviors, averaged over time and across many different types of situations. Most modern personality researchers agree that there is a place for broad personality traits and for the narrower units such as those studied by Walter Mischel.

Videos

(Video) The Best Big Five Personality Traits Profile for a Leader

Video 1: Gabriela Cintron’s –5 Factors of Personality (OCEAN Song). This is a student-made video which cleverly describes, through song, common behavioral characteristics of the Big 5 personality traits.

Video 2: Michael Harris’ –Personality Traits: The Big 5 and More. This is a student-made video that looks at characteristics of the OCEAN traits through a series of funny vignettes. It also presents on the Person vs Situation Debate.

Video 3: David M. Cole’s –Grouchy with a Chance of Stomping. This is a student-made video that makes a very important point about the relationship between personality traits and behavior using a handy weather analogy.

Vocabulary to Learn for this Chapter

Agreeableness
A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be compassionate, cooperative, warm, and caring to others. People low in agreeableness tend to be rude, hostile, and to pursue their own interests over those of others.
Conscientiousness
A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be careful, organized, hardworking, and to follow rules.
Continuous distributions
Characteristics can go from low to high, with all different intermediate values possible. One does not simply have the trait or not have it, but can possess varying amounts of it.
Extraversion
A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be sociable, outgoing, active, and assertive.
Facets
Broad personality traits can be broken down into narrower facets or aspects of the trait. For example, extraversion has several facets, such as sociability, dominance, risk-taking and so forth.
Factor analysis
A statistical technique for grouping similar things together according to how highly they are associated.
Five-Factor Model
(also called the Big Five) The Five-Factor Model is a widely accepted model of personality traits. Advocates of the model believe that much of the variability in people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can be summarized with five broad traits. These five traits are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
HEXACO model
The HEXACO model is an alternative to the Five-Factor Model. The HEXACO model includes six traits, five of which are variants of the traits included in the Big Five (Emotionality [E], Extraversion [X], Agreeableness [A], Conscientiousness [C], and Openness [O]). The sixth factor, Honesty-Humility [H], is unique to this model.
Independent
Two characteristics or traits are separate from one another– a person can be high on one and low on the other, or vice-versa. Some correlated traits are relatively independent in that although there is a tendency for a person high on one to also be high on the other, this is not always the case.
Lexical hypothesis
The lexical hypothesis is the idea that the most important differences between people will be encoded in the language that we use to describe people. Therefore, if we want to know which personality traits are most important, we can look to the language that people use to describe themselves and others.
Neuroticism
A personality trait that reflects the tendency to be interpersonally sensitive and the tendency to experience negative emotions like anxiety, fear, sadness, and anger.
Openness to Experience
A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to seek out and to appreciate new things, including thoughts, feelings, values, and experiences.
Personality
Enduring predispositions that characterize a person, such as styles of thought, feelings and behavior.
Personality traits
Enduring dispositions in behavior that show differences across individuals, and which tend to characterize the person across varying types of situations.
Person-situation debate
The person-situation debate is a historical debate about the relative power of personality traits as compared to situational influences on behavior. The situationist critique, which started the person-situation debate, suggested that people overestimate the extent to which personality traits are consistent across situations.

References

  • Allport, G. W., & Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait names: A psycholexical study.Psychological Monographs, 47, 211.
  • Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure.Personality and Social Psychological Review, 11, 150–166.
  • Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change.Annual Reviews of Psychology, 56, 453–484.
  • Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality.Psychological Assessment, 18, 192–203.
  • Eysenck, H. J. (1981).A model for personality.New York: Springer Verlag.
  • Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative description of personality: The Big Five personality traits.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229.
  • Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.),A Model for Personality(pp. 246-276). New York: Springer Verlag.
  • Gray, J. A. & McNaughton, N. (2000).The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system (second edition).Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2003).Personality traits. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.
  • McCrae, R. R. & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications.Journal of Personality, 60, 175–215.
  • Mischel, W. (1968).Personality and assessment. New York: John Wiley.
  • Paunonen, S. V., & Ashton, M. S. (2001). Big five factors and facets and the prediction of behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 524–539.
  • Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Golberg, L. R. (2007). The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes.Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 313-345.

This is an edited and adapted chapter. The original authors bear no responsibility for its content. The original content can be accessed at:

Diener, E. & Lucas, R. E. (2019). Personality traits. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds),Noba textbook series: Psychology.Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved fromhttp://noba.to/96u8ecgw

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Grateful appreciation to the authors for this original chapter. The authors have no responsibility for this edited and adapted version.

Personality Traits – The Balance of Personality (8)

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FAQs

Which personality is known as balanced personality? ›

A balanced personality—one in which our personality traits are of average intensity (i.e., normal) needs work and is not easily achieved. It is a life-long process, meaning that we can continue tuning our personality throughout our lives.

What are the 4 different personality traits? ›

The four personality types are: Driver, Expressive, Amiable, and Analytical. There are two variables to identify any personality: Are they better at facts & data or relationships? And are they introverted or extroverted. Note: Most people will have major and minor type.

What is needed for balance personality? ›

Some essential factors must be developed, such as patience, curiosity, accuracy, persistence, leadership, and creative thinking. Personal and social adjustments are of utmost importance. One should be able to adjust to any required environment.

What are the 5 core personality traits? ›

Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.

What are the 7 Aspects of balance personality? ›

To have a personality trait, individuals must be somewhat consistent across situations in their behaviors related to the trait. For example, if they are talkative at home, they tend also to be talkative at work.
...
  • Confidence.
  • Carelessness/Carefulness.
  • Honesty/Humility.
  • Creativity/Detail Orientation.

What do you call a balanced person? ›

  • even-keeled,
  • judicious,
  • levelheaded,
  • sensible,
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What are the 4 quadrants of personality? ›

4 quadrants of personalities have been identified. Hippocrates called them Sanguine, Choleric, Melancholic and Phlegmatic. Translated into the 21st century, we use the DISC model, or Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Conscientiousness.

What is personality and its types? ›

Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group.

How does balanced personality developed? ›

Solution. A balanced personality develops when we learn to cope up with our emotions.

What is the meaning of being balanced? ›

Definition of balanced

(Entry 1 of 2) : being in a state of balance : having different parts or elements properly or effectively arranged, proportioned, regulated, considered, etc.

What is having balance in your life? ›

Creating a balanced life means making time for the things you have to do, as well as the things you want to do. You have the power to create harmony between your responsibilities and finding time daily to do things that bring you pleasure, personal fulfillment, and rejuvenation.

What are the 10 personality traits? ›

The 10 personality traits of a psychologically healthy person
  • Openness to feelings. “Openness to feelings means that we are not afraid of our feelings,” says Hayes. ...
  • Straightforwardness. ...
  • Competence. ...
  • Warmth. ...
  • Positive emotions. ...
  • Low levels of angry hostility. ...
  • Low anxiety. ...
  • Low depression.
9 Aug 2022

What are the 4 factors that influence personality? ›

There are 4 major determinants of personality which include the physical environment, heredity, experiences and culture.

Who made the Big 5 personality traits? ›

In the 1970s two research teams led by Paul Costa and Robert R. McCrae of the National Institutes of Health and Warren Norman and Lewis Goldberg of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the University of Oregon, respectively, discovered that most human character traits can be described using five dimensions.

What are the 6 healthy personality traits? ›

What traits make a healthy personality?
  • capable to experience and express emotions.
  • confident in their own abilities.
  • emotionally stable.
  • fairly resilient to stress.
  • straightforward.
  • warm.
  • friendly.
  • genuine.
30 Dec 2018

What are the 6 traits of good character? ›

The Six Pillars of Character are: Trustworthiness, Respect, Responsibility, Fairness, Caring and Citizenship. We recommend always using the Pillars in this specific order and using the acronym “T.R.R.F.C.C.” (terrific). Each of The Six Pillar of Character traits are used within our CHARACTER COUNTS!

What are the 5 aspects of a balanced lifestyle? ›

Here are five key elements to living a healthy lifestyle:
  • 1) A Balanced Diet. A balanced diet is easier and more beneficial than a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet for most people to maintain. ...
  • 2) Regular Physical Activity. ...
  • 3) Maintaining a Regular Sleep Pattern. ...
  • 4) Stress Management. ...
  • 5) Supplementation.

What is the most important aspect of a balanced person? ›

We must invest time and energy in all 6 of these aspects if we want to live a happy and balanced life. These 6 aspects are 1) Physical, 2) Mental, 3) Emotional, 4) Social, 5) Work, and 6) Spirituality.

How do you live a balanced life? ›

The following practices will help bring balance back in your life:
  1. Be reasonable. People have a limit to resources like time, money and energy. ...
  2. Find a support system. ...
  3. Take control and say no. ...
  4. Make a schedule for rest. ...
  5. Focus on today.

What are two synonyms for balanced? ›

balanced
  • equitable.
  • fair.
  • counterbalanced.
  • evened.
  • offset.
  • stabilized.
  • uniform.
  • equivalent.

What are the 4 types of people? ›

People come in four types, according to this habit expert
  • Obligers.
  • Upholders.
  • Questioners.
  • Rebels.
20 Sept 2017

What is the most common personality type? ›

Overall, the most common personality type is ISFJ

The most common personality type is the ISFJ personality type, known as 'The Protector'. This type occurs in 14% of the population. It is also the most common personality type among women. ISFJ stands for Introversion, Sensing, Feeling and Judging.

Which of the following are 3 traits of driver personality? ›

The Driver personality type traits
  • Be eager to take charge of things.
  • Resist influence from others.
  • Be vocal about opinions and ideas.
  • Pursue large, ambitious goals with speed and bursts of intensity.
  • Compete and debate with others.

What is called personality? ›

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability.

What are the factors of personality? ›

Personality traits are understood as patterns of thought, feeling, and behaviour that are relatively enduring across an individual's life span. The traits that constitute the five-factor model are extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

What are the 7 personality types? ›

Instead of trying to break people into "types," psychologists focus on personality traits.
...
Measuring personality traits
  • Openness.
  • Conscientiousness.
  • Extraversion.
  • Agreeableness.
  • Neuroticism.
3 Nov 2021

What are the 8 personality types? ›

They are very skilled at communication.
  • Sentimental introvert. The sentimental introvert personality type corresponds with solitary people who have great difficulty establishing social relationships with other people. ...
  • Perceptive extrovert. ...
  • Perceptive introvert. ...
  • Intuitive extrovert. ...
  • Intuitive introvert.
28 Jul 2022

What are the three types of personality? ›

Based on people's features, signs, and symptoms, personality disorders are grouped into three main types called clusters: cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C. Each cluster is further divided into more subtypes.

What is psychologically balanced? ›

Figure 2 illustrates Psychological Balance as the state where an individual's level of Consistency and Flexibility reconciles their perceived internal and external worlds (self and others).

How does a balanced personality develop class 5th? ›

Answer: When we learn to cope with our emotions, our personality becomes balanced, we are able to understand others and overcome difficult situations. It is then that we become free from faults such as blaming others unnecessarily. Question 5.

Why must we know our flaws? ›

Use your flaws to guide self-improvement. Embracing your flaws doesn't mean you can't improve yourself. In some cases, recognizing certain flaws gives you the opportunity to work on those imperfections. If your flaw is something you want to change, go for it!

Why balance is important in life? ›

Improves General Health

Finding balance in life helps you improve your overall health. When you have balance, you have time to pay attention to your body's needs. You can prioritize things like diet, exercise, and meditation instead of regretting that you never have time to take care of yourself.

What is the example of balance? ›

An example of balance is being able to walk on a tight rope. An example of balance is when a person divides his time evenly between work, family, and personal pleasure. An example of balance is a person who doesn't get upset very often and doesn't let the little things bother them.

What does Balanced View mean? ›

1 having weight equally distributed. 2 (of a person) mentally and emotionally stable. 3 (of a discussion, programme, etc.) presenting opposing points of view fairly and without bias.

How can you improve your balance? ›

Easy ways to improve your balance
  1. Walking, biking, and climbing stairs strengthen muscles in your lower body. ...
  2. Stretching loosens tight muscles, which can affect posture and balance.
  3. Yoga strengthens and stretches tight muscles while challenging your static and dynamic balance skills.

What is the symbol of balance? ›

One of the most easily recognizable symbols of balance in the world is the yin yang symbol. The symbol was born in ancient China to visually represent duality—light and dark, positive and negative. However, it is so much more than there just being two sides to every coin.

How do you balance your responsibility? ›

Now, let's look at some ways you can improve your work-life balance at home.
  1. Communicate boundaries so you can truly unplug. ...
  2. Invest in relationships. ...
  3. Make space in your schedule for family time. ...
  4. Prioritize quality time. ...
  5. Start small. ...
  6. Ask for help.

What is the importance of personality traits? ›

Thus, personality traits are not just a useful way to describe people you know; they actually help psychologists predict how good a worker someone will be, how long he or she will live, and the types of jobs and activities the person will enjoy.

What is the two key components of personality? ›

It is the development of the ego and the superego that allows people to control the id's basic instincts and act in ways that are both realistic and socially acceptable.

How do personality traits develop? ›

According to social cognitive theory, personality formation occurs when people observe the behaviors of others. This leads to adaptation and assimilation, particularly if those behaviors are rewarded.

What is structure of personality? ›

According to Freud, the human personality consists of three components: Id, Ego, and Superego. While these are conceptualized as three distinct structures, they are constantly interacting with each other. The easiest way to envision the structures is to use the iceberg metaphor.

What is the most important Big 5 personality trait? ›

Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of all five traits for job performance (John & Srivastava, 1999). A high score of conscientiousness has been shown to relate to high work performance across all dimensions. The other traits have been shown to predict more specific aspects of job performance.

What is the Five Factor Model of personality used for? ›

The Five Factor Model is used because it is a comprehensive measure of personality that is based on empirical evidence. The model has been found to be valid and reliable in predicting various outcomes, such as job performance, occupational interests, and personality disorders.

What are theories of personality? ›

The Six Different Theories About Personality

In describing personality, we'll go through six different personality theories: psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, trait theory, social-cognitive theory, biological theory, and behaviorist theory.

What is agreeable personality? ›

Overall, agreeableness describes a person's ability to put other people's needs above their own. For instance, people who are high in agreeableness naturally experience empathy and tend to get tremendous pleasure from serving others and taking care of them.

What is the Hexaco personality test? ›

The HEXACO model is often used in research studies when behaviors or traits found on the Agreeableness, Honesty-Humility and Emotionality dimensions are of specific interest. The factors of Agreeableness, Honesty-Humility and Emotionality are distinctly different from their counterparts on the Five Factor Model (FFM).

What is consistency model in personality? ›

Personality is inferred from behavior and personality consistency refers to similar behavior in similar situations (cross-situational consistency) and/or similar behavior over time (temporal consistency). Continuity may be thought of as a combination of these types of consistency.

What do you mean by personality? ›

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability.

What is emotional stability personality trait? ›

Emotional stability or neuroticism is one of the five personality traits of the Big Five personality theory. Emotional stability refers to a person's ability to remain stable and balanced. At the other end of the scale, a person who is high in neuroticism has a tendency to easily experience negative emotions.

What is openness personality? ›

People who tend to be high in the trait of openness are more willing to embrace new things, fresh ideas, and novel experiences. They are open-minded and approach new things with curiosity and tend to seek out novelty. They tend to pursue new adventures, experiences, and creative endeavors.

What is a disagreeable personality? ›

Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with others' well-being and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others' motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative.

What is a Machiavellian person? ›

Machiavellianism is a personality trait that denotes cunningness, the ability to be manipulative, and a drive to use whatever means necessary to gain power. Machiavellianism is one of the traits that forms the Dark Triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy.

What is the 6 factor personality theory? ›

According to the HEXACO six-factor personality model, the personality is best described by six dimensions. These are: Honesty-humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness to experience. The authors of the model – Michael C.

What are the big six personality traits? ›

Markers of six personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Honesty-Humility) were assessed using the Mini-International-Personality-Item-Pool-6 (Mini-IPIP6; Donnellan et al., 2006; Sibley et al., 2011).

What is personality stability? ›

Personality stability is the result of the interplay between the individual and her/his environment. Psychologists use the term person–environment transactions (e.g., Roberts et al., 2008) to capture the mutually transforming interplay between individuals and their contextual circumstances.

What is personality based on? ›

Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group.

Does personality change over time or is it consistent? ›

And while personality traits are relatively stable over time, they can and often do gradually change across the life span. What's more, those changes are usually for the better. Many studies, including some of my own, show that most adults become more agreeable, conscientious and emotionally resilient as they age.

What is an example of a personality trait? ›

Examples of Positive Personality Traits

Being honest and taking responsibility for your actions are admirable qualities. Adaptability and affability are great traits that can help a person get along well with others. Drive, determination and persistence can help keep a person going no matter what.

What is personality made of? ›

At its most basic, personality is the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. It is believed that personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life.

What is another word for personality traits? ›

Some common synonyms of personality are character, disposition, temperament, and temper. While all these words mean "the dominant quality or qualities distinguishing a person or group," personality applies to an aggregate of qualities that distinguish one as a person.

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